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我言秋日勝春朝 | 24 Solar Terms: Liqiu (Beginning of Autumn)

文旅康養 | 2020-08-07 09:45:51
| [編輯:余梓林]

立秋是一年中的第十三個節氣,今年是陰歷六月十八日,對應公歷8月7日,標志著秋季伊始,暑去涼來,禾谷成熟。古人容易悲秋,一到秋風起,心中就升起落寞惆悵之感。春天鳥語花香、夏季草木爭榮的繁華一去不復返。在他們心目中,秋季開始萬物凋零,隨后就是嚴冬的肅殺。但是唐朝詩人劉禹錫卻獨樹一幟,吟誦出千古絕唱:

自古逢秋悲寂寥,

我言秋日勝春朝。

晴空一鶴排云上,

便引詩情到碧霄。

——《秋詞二首》

貴州 威寧草海 黑頸鶴故鄉 Home of Black-necked Crane, Weining county, Guizhou province

Liqiu (Beginning of Autumn), the thirteenth of 24 solar terms, falls on the 18th of the sixth month of Chinese lunar calendar, which is August 7 this year. Liqiu signifies the end of summer and ripening of crops. Chinese ancients are inclined to be sorrowful in autumn - a sense of desolation and melancholy emerges as the autumn wind arrives, carrying away the chirping birds, fragrant spring flowers and lush summer trees. In their hearts, when autumn begins, everything starts to wither, and severe winter follows. But for Liu Yuxi, a celebrated poet in the Tang dynasty, it evokes a completely different sentiment. He says:

Since olden days we feel in autumn sad and drear,

But I say spring cannot compete with autumn clear.

On a fine day a crane cleaves the clouds and soars high;

It leads the poet’s lofty mind to azure sky.

Song of Autumn / Translated by Xu Yuanchong

吉林 向海仙鶴 Cranes in Xianghai National Nature Reserve, Jilin province / 顏國良  Yan Guoliang

在二十四節氣的時令劃分中,“五天為一候,三候為一氣”。立秋“一候涼風至;二候白露生;三候寒蟬鳴。”其實,立秋之始,暑熱仍盛,尤其今年立秋較早,還未出伏,之后通常還會出現“秋老虎”(立秋后短期回熱至35℃以上的天氣)。況且秋天瓜甜果熟,成熟的金黃和酡紅,給世界增添了比春夏更繽紛的色彩,讓人們可以感受大自然給予的更豐富的饋贈。

廣西壯族自治區 東蘭月亮河長壽村 Moon River Longevity Village, Donglan county, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

Each solar term consists of 3 units ( “hou” in Chinese) with 5 days in each unit. Cool breeze comes in the first five days of Liqiu; white dew appears in the second five days and winter cicadas begin to sing in the third. However, it can still be hot around Liqiu, especially when Liqiu arrives during the three periods of the hot season this year. After the Beginning of Autumn, temperature is also expected to rise to more than 35℃ - a phenomenon literally translated as “autumn tiger”, meaning that the heat is as strong as the tiger. Moreover, the ripe fruits add a touch of color brighter than spring and summer to the world, enabling people to enjoy precious gifts of the nature.

福建龍巖 永定初溪土樓群 Tulou Cluster of Chuxi Village, Yongding county, Fujian province

祭祀 / Offering Sacrifices

立秋代表著即將迎來豐收的季節,因此要立社祭祀土地神,感恩上天賜予的好年景。

Liqiu marks a season of harvesting. Therefore, people offer sacrifices to the Earth God to show their gratitude for the good yield.

曬秋 / Drying crops

立秋之后,作物漸熟,在地形復雜較少平地的湖南、江西、安徽等南方山區,為防止收獲的作物發霉,農戶利用自家房屋、窗臺、屋頂等結構,架曬或掛曬農作物,逐漸形成了“曬秋”的習俗。

In the mountainous areas in Hunan, Jiangxi, Anhui and other southern Chinese provinces, farmers use their houses, sills, roofs and other structures to keep the harvested crops dry and not mouldy.

貴州 占里 Zhanli village, Guizhou province / 張琪 Zhang Qi

貴州 金秋侗寨  Dong village in Autumn, Guizhou province / 張建釗 Zhang Jianzhao

福建 三明尤溪縣桂峰村 Guifeng village, Youxi county, Fujian province

啃秋 / 咬秋 Biting Autumn

立秋要吃西瓜或香瓜,寓意炎炎夏日酷熱難熬,忽逢立秋,將其咬住,抒發豐收的喜悅。

People should eat watermelon or muskmelon on Liqiu, symbolizing a grasp of autumn after the sweltering summer and expressing the joy of harvest.

貼秋膘 / Fleshing out in autumn

在立秋這天稱重與立夏對比,如果體重減輕,就要多吃味厚的肉菜,補充夏季的消耗,也為冬天儲存能量。

Compare your weight of Liqiu with that of Lixia (Beginning of Summer). If you have lost weight, you should eat more heavy food, especially meat, to make up for the loss of weight in summer and store energy for winter.

浙江 霉干菜燜肉 Pork Stewed with Preserved Vegetables, Zhejiang province

海南 咖喱蟹 Curry crab, Hainan province

北京 烤鴨 Peking Duck / 世界中餐業聯合會 World Federation of Chinese Catering Industry

養生 / Health Preservation

“立秋到,防溫燥”。秋季是萬物收獲的季節,也是人體陽消陰長的時期,因此養生以收養為原則,可以吃些滋潤祛燥的食品,如銀耳、百合、蜂蜜、核桃、梨、荸薺等。

"Mind autumn dryness when Liqiu arrives", as the old saying goes. Autumn is the season of harvesting, as well as the time when yang is receding and yin is growing. So according to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, food that can ease the dryness and nourish the body, such as tremella, dried lily petals, honey, walnut, pear and water chestnut, etc., is highly recommended for this period of time.

綠豆百合粥 Porridge with mung beans and dried lily petals

雪梨銀耳羹 Pear and Tremella Soup

斗秋蟲 / Cricket Fighting

中國有關蟋蟀的記錄最早可見于《詩經》。斗蟋蟀的歷史可以追溯至唐朝,是上至皇親國胄,下至平民百姓都樂此不疲的游戲。南宋宰相賈似道曾編寫《促織經》,被稱為“蟋蟀宰相”。如今,生產優質蟋蟀的山東省寧津縣吸引了不少人來此尋找心目中的蟲王。

The first records of cricket in China can be found in The Book of Songs, the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry. Cricket fighting can date back to  the Tang dynasty as a game loved by all walks of life, from emperors to ordinary people. Jia Sidao, a grand chancellor in the Southern Song dynasty, complied The Book of Cricket. Today, China's largest cricket-beeding site in Ningjin county, Shandong province attracts people across the nation to search for the cricket king.

月季小蟲 / Chinese Rose and Insects

作者 / Artist:居廉 / Ju Lian

創作年代 / Year:不祥 / Unknown

規格 / Dimension:23×28.8cm

材質 / Technique:紙本水墨設色 / Ink and color on paper

現藏于中國美術館 / In the collection of National Art Museum of China

殘葉工蟲 / Autumn Leaves and Insects

作者 / Artist:齊白石 / Qi Baishi

創作年代 / Year:1920s

規格 / Dimension:90.3×41.4cm

材質 / Technique:紙本水墨設色 / Ink and color on paper

現藏于中國美術館 / In the collection of National Art Museum of China

牽牛花工蟲 / Morning Glory and Insects

作者 / Artist:齊白石 / Qi Baishi

創作年代 / Year:不詳 / Unknown

規格 / Dimension:115×50cm

材質 / Technique:紙本水墨設色 / Ink and color on paper

現藏于中國美術館 / In the collection of National Art Museum of China

花卉草蟲 / Flowers and Insect

作者 / Artist:齊白石 / Qi Baishi

創作年代 / Year:1920

規格 / Dimension:22.5×18.5cm

材質 / Technique:紙本水墨設色 / Ink and color on paper

現藏于中國美術館 / In the collection of National Art Museum of China

仿汝釉蟋蟀罐 / Cricket Jar with Ru Glaze

明 / Ming dynasty

現藏于故宮博物院 / In the collection of the Palace Museum

青花云龍紋蟋蟀罐 /  Blue-and-white Cricket Pot with the Design of Dragon among Clouds

明 / Ming dynasty

現藏于故宮博物院 / In the collection of the Palace Museum

萬歷款五彩海水云龍紋六棱蟋蟀罐 /

Polychrome Cricket Jar with Waves and Dragon-among-Clouds Design

明 / Ming dynasty

現藏于故宮博物院 / In the collection of the Palace Museum

資料來源 / Sources:

http://www.ihchina.cn

貴州省文化和旅游廳

吉林省文化和旅游廳

廣西壯族自治區文化和旅游廳

福建省文化和旅游廳

浙江省文化和旅游廳

海南省旅游和文化廣電體育廳

故宮博物院

中國美術館

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